Stephen J. Merrill - Professor of
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Major Research Interests
models in immunology utilizing a variety of methods including differential
equations and stochastic techniques
role of randomness in dynamical systems
mechanism of action of medicinal herbs
toxicology of novel compounds released from medical devices
of UV with HPV-associated cancer, melanoma, and other cancers
Education and Visiting Positions
Current and Recent Research
of the role of cofactors in an HIV infection ( this work has been reviewed
in New Scientist 6 September, 1997, p. 12 : HIV's
chain analysis of heart rate variability and hypotensive events
description of immune reconstitution after stem cell transplantation with
St. Luke's Hospital in Milwaukee
in the HCV genome with the Blood Research Center in Milwaukee
of the microarray
the creative process
changes in the neurological exam with age
imaging – registration and 3D information from a fluoroscopic image (patent)
- UV and
cancer of the throat and cervix (summarized (in Swedish) here)
Malignant Melanoma (CMM) incidence (reviewed here)
autoimmunity (summarized in World Biomedical
Recent Talks, Abstracts, and Posters (Invited talk list)
Immunological Methods (vol. 374 issues 1-2) in November 2011 :
High-throughput methods for immunology:
Machine learning and automation
This is one of the first
collections of papers in the new field of “Immunomics”,
a subfield of Bioinformatics.
The issue also reported the results
of the machine learning competition on prediction of HLA class I binding
Merrill, R.J. DeBoer, and A.S. Perelson, Development
of the T-cell repertoire: clone size distribution, Rocky Mt. J.
Math., 24 (1994) 213-231.
Merrill and J. R. Cochran, Markov chain methods in the analysis of heart
rate variability, Fields Institute Comm., 11 (1997) 241-252.
Root-Bernstein and S.J. Merrill, The necessity of
cofactors in the pathogenesis of AIDS: A mathematical model, J. theor. Biol., 187 (1997) , 135-146.
Merrill and R.S. Root-Bernstein, A
model of the role of cofactors in the initiation and development of AIDS,
Appl. Math. Quarterly, 6 (1998), 173-185.
Models in immunological methods: an historical review, J. Immunol. Meth., 126 (1998) ,69-92.
Murphy, S.J. Merrill, and A. LeFever, The
engraftment kinetics of white blood cells and platelets following
peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, Proceedings of the
International Conference on Scientific Computing & Mathematical
Modeling, Milwaukee, WI, June 2000, 209-212.
Root-Bernstein and S.J. Merrill, Etiology and Pathogenesis of AIDS, in AIDS and Complementary and Alternative
Medicine, L.J. Standish, C. Calabrese, and M.L. Galantino (eds.), Churchill-Livingstone (2002), 31-50.
Merrill and S.E. Merrill, Introductory biological sequence analysis
through spreadsheets, Proceedings of 13th ICTCM, Atlanta, GA,
Addison-Wesley (2002), 246-249. Powerpoint slides
Wang, T. Bian, S.J. Merrill, and D.D. Eckels, Sequence variation
in the gene encoding the non-structural 3 protein of hepatitis C virus:
Evidence for immune selection, J. Mol. Evol.
54 (2002), 465-473.
S.J. Merrill and B.M. Murphy, Detecting
autocatalytic dynamics in data modeled by a compartmental model, Math. Biosci. 180 (2002), 255-262. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0025-5564(02)00114-1
Merrill, Solving problems: perchance to dream, in ICTMA 11: Mathematical Modelling: A Way
of Life, S.J. Lamon, W.A. Parker, and
S.K. Houston (eds.), Chichester, UK: Horwood Publishing, Ltd. (2003), 97-105.
Merrill, S. Nelson, and C.A. Struble, Spatial
dependence of hybridization in the cDNA microarray, Can.
Appl. Math. Quarterly 11 (2003), 321-337.
Merrill, The stochastic dance of early HIV infection, J. Comp. Appl.
Math. 184 (2005), 242-257. doi:10.1016/j.cam.2003.09.057
Merrill, To again feel the creative voice, Int. J. of Sci. and Math.
Ed., 5 (2007), 145-164. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10763-006-9047-6
Merrill, B. Myklebust, J. Myklebust, N. Reynolds, and E. Duthie, A Poisson-like model
of sub-clinical signs from the examination of healthy aging subjects, Aging
Clinical and Experimental Research, 20 (2008), 368-375.
Tick, S. Merrill, and A. Huber, Sheepish: Health store as healing
sanctuary, Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing 4
- J. Blimke, J. Myklebust, H. Volkmer,
S. Merrill, Four-shell ellipsoidal model employing multipole expansion in
ellipsoidal coordinates, Medical & Biological Engineering &
Computing, 46 (2008), 859-869. doi:10.1007/s11517-008-0352-9
state of the science of nonlinear dynamics in 1963, Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology and Life
Sciences 13 (2009) 249-256.
Iqbal Ahamed, Dennis Brylow, Rong Ge, Praveen Madiraju, Steve Merrill,
Craig Struble, and Jim Early, Computational thinking in the sciences: A
three day workshop for high school science teachers, In Proceedings of
SIGCSE 2010: The 41st ACM Technical Symposium on Computer Science
Education, pages 42-46, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, March 2010. doi:10.1145/1734263.1734277
Merrill, Markov Chains for identifying nonlinear dynamics, Chapter 17 in Nonlinear
Dynamical Systems Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences Using Real Data,
Stephen J. Guastello and Robert A.M. Gregson, eds., CRC Press, 2010,
- S. S.
Kiware, N. Chitnis, S. J. Moore, G. J. Devine,
S. Majambere, S. Merrill, and G. F. Killeen, Simplified models of vector
control impact upon malaria transmission by zoophagic
mosquitoes, PLoS ONE 7(5):e37661 (2012) doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0037661
Pandiyan, S.J. Merrill, and S. Benvenga, A patient-specific model of the
negative-feedback control of the hypothalamus–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) axis
in autoimmune (Hashimoto’s) thyroiditis, Mathematical Medicine and Biology 31(2013) 226-258. doi:10.1093/imammb/dqt005
Brown, S. White, J. Goode, P. Pradeep, and S.J. Merrill. Use of QSAR
modeling to predict the carcinogenicity of color additives. Proceedings of the ASME/FDA 2013 1st
Annual Frontiers in Medical Devices: Applications of Computer Modeling and
Simulation. September 2013 doi:10.1115/FMD2013-16161
Adibuzzaman, G.C. Kramer, L. Galeotti, S.J.
Merrill, D.G. Strauss, C.G. Scully, The mixing rate of the arterial blood
pressure waveform Markov Chain is correlated with Shock Index during
hemorrhage in anesthetized swine, Proceedings of Engineering in Medicine
and Biology Society (EMBC), 2014
36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE, August 2014,
Godar, R. Tang, and S.J. Merrill, Pharyngeal and cervical cancer
incidences significantly correlate with personal UV doses among whites in
the United States, Anticancer
Research 34: 4993-5000
Merrill, S. Ashrafi, M. Subramanian, and D.E. Godar, Exponentially
increasing incidences of cutaneous malignant melanoma in Europe correlate
with low personal annual UV doses and suggests two major risk factors, Dermato-Endocrinology 7 (1): e1004018 (2015)
- P. Pradeep, C. Struble, T. Neimman, D.S. Sem, and S.J.
Merrill, A novel scoring based distributed protein docking application to
improve enrichment, IEEE/ACM
Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics 12(6):
1464-1469 (2015) doi: 10.1109/TCBB.2015.2401020
Merrill and Y. Mu, Thyroid autoimmunity as a window to autoimmunity: An
explanation for sex differences in the prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity, J. theor. Biol. 375: 95-100 (2015)
Pradeep, R.J. Povinelli, S.J. Merrill, S. Bozdag, and D. Sem, Novel uses of in
vitro data to develop quantitative biological activity relationship
models for in vivo
carcinogenicity prediction, Molecular
Informatics 34 (4): 236-245
(2015) doi: 10.1002/minf.201400168
- S.S. Kiware, G. Corliss, S. Merrill, D.W. Lwetoijera, G. Devine, S. Majambere,
G.F. Killeen, Predicting scenarios for successful autodissemination
of pyriproxyfen by malaria vectors from their
resting sites to aquatic habitats; Description and simulation analysis of
a field-parametrized model, PLoS One 10(7): e0131825 (2015) doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0131835
Merrill, Why study statistics? Chapter 3 in Statistics for the
Curious: Why Study Statistics, K. Vaidya, ed., Curious Academic
Merrill, M. Subramanian, D.E. Godar, Worldwide cutaneous malignant melanoma
incidences analyzed by sex, age, and skin type over time (1955-2007): Is
HPV infection of androgenic hair follicular melanocytes a risk factor for
developing melanoma exclusively in people of European-ancestry? Dermato-Endocrinology 8(1): e1215391 (2016)
Pradeep, R.J. Povinelli, S. White,
S.J. Merrill, An Ensemble Model of QSAR Tools for Regulatory Risk
Assessment, Journal of Cheminformatics
8:48 (2016) doi:10.1186/s13321-016-0164-0
Pandiyan, S.J. Merrill, and S. Benvenga, A homoclinic orbit in a patient-specific model of
Hashimoto's Thyroiditis, Differential
Equations and Dynamical Systems (2016). doi:10.1007/s12591-016-0335-5
Godar, M. Subramanian, S.J. Merrill, Cutaneous malignant melanoma incidences
analyzed worldwide by sex, age, and skin type over personal Ultraviolet-B dose shows no role for sunburn but implies one for vitamin D3, Dermato-Endocrinology
9(1): e1267077 (2017) doi:10.1080/19381980.2016.1267077
- D.E. Godar, M.
Subramanian, S.J. Merrill, Cutaneous malignant melanoma
incidences analyzed worldwide by sex and skin type over advancing age of
males and females: Evidence estrogen and androgenic hair are risk factors,
Journal of Epidemiological Research
3(1): 42-50 (2017) doi:10.5430/jer.v3n1p42
- L.C. Savery, R. Viñas, A.
Nagy, P. Pradeep, S.J. Merrill, A.M. Hood, S.G. Malghan, P.L. Goering,
R.P. Brown, Deriving a provisional tolerable intake for intravenous
exposure to silver nanoparticles released from medical devices, Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology
85: 108-118 (2017) doi:10.1016/j.yrtph.2017.01.007
Sharma, B. Wisniewski, E. Paulson, J. Obaoye,
S.J. Merrill, and A.L. Manogaran, De
novo [PSI+] prion
formation involves multiple pathways to form infectious oligomers, Scientific Reports, (2017), to
1988 Xuncheng Huang Mathematical analysis
of population models
1992 Ondine Harris The Polymerase Chain Reaction: A Stochastic Model,
Methods of Quantification, and Applications to HIV
1993 Zhixiong He Mathematical models of muscle response to periodic
1996 Xing Wu Dynamical systems in the modeling of lampry fictive swimming
2001 Brian Murphy Modeling the time to engraftment of white blood
cells and platelets following
autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation
2008 Shivani Ratnakumar Markov chain modeling of ECG gated
live left atrial fluoroscopy variability
to establish a
well-defined basis for rigid registration to a 3D CT image
Pandiyan Mathematical modeling and
dynamical analysis of the operation of the
hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis in autoimmune (Hashimoto’s)
Pradeep Hybrid computational
toxicology models for regulatory risk assessment
Adibuzzaman Computational approached
for monitoring of health parameters
their evaluation for application in clinical setting (with
Sheikh Iqbal Ahamed)
Current Doctoral Students
Paulson Dynamics of prion-like accumulation and pattern formation
Xuyong Yu Cardiac
electrophysiology – catheter tracking and analysis
Kehinde Irabor Evaluating
ecological corridors (with K.
Stephen J. Merrill
Department MSCS Cudahy Hall
P.O. Box 1881
Milwaukee, WI 53201-1881